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History of India
Indian history stretches back to many years back, roots are so old that they cannot be even traced. The earliest recorded mark in the Indian subcontinent is traced by the early middle and late stone ages(400,000-200,000BC).
Traces of all these three periods can be easily seen in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Bihar some parts are also in Pakistan now and some are also in the southern most tip of the Indian Peninsula.
Historical Temples in Goa - History of Delhi -
Historical Temples in Goa- History of Delhi-
The oldest and very much known civilization that first laid the bricks of a civilized world in India was known as the Indus civilization. It was very highly planned with wide streets, well planned private wells, drains, bathing area and everything was quite systematic. It was also known as Bronze age civilization.
Primarily this civilization centered around the Indus river basin and in the Punjab region. It extended towards Ghaggar-hakra river valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab. If we see geographically then it is spread over an area of some 1,260,000 km2, which makes it the largest civilization in the world.
The first city to be discovered was the Harappa and was very well planned like other city's of the Indus valley. They had granaries, citadels, bathing area and the city was connected to the sea that also solved the trading purposes. Ships involved in trading sailed south-west area which was generally controlled by the Mesopotamia.
The Indus Valley is the world's oldest civilization with other contemporaries. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. But surely Indus civilization outlasted them because people living at that time was highly advanced and slowly they developed technique of metallurgy also.
The Aryans were the first one to invade North India, they made their first noticeable appearance around 2000-1500 BC, they are known as Indo-Aryans. Originally they were located on the steppes of Southern Russia and Central Asia. They spoke many Indo- European languages as well as Sanskrit also.
They were warriors and conquerors, Aryans lived on the side of Indus, they were the one who introduced the caste system and hence established the Indian religions. This civilization is known by a continental shift to the east, they are the one who introduced Iron tools and weapons, they are also the first one to know about the horse. They were settled in the Ganges valley and also built very strong and large kingdoms throughout the northern India.
The Indus Valley Civilization
One can see gradual change in society of Indus Civilization, from the early village culture which was slowly replaced to a town culture. People started living more civilized life.
Slowly this civilization started growing and spread across 500,000 square miles, it covered large area of India. Indus valley civilization is also known as the Harappan civilization, it was the first city to be unearthed excavated in 1920's. The name Indus was given as it was located near by, it dates back to about 3000BC. It was the most developed civilization of that time. The growth of this civilization was stupendous.
Except Harappa some other towns of Indus civilization are Mohanjodaro, Surkotada to name a few, represents the high level of town planning. This civilization was not only restricted to the Indus river in fact it was spread in very large area. Nowadays Harappa and Mohanjodaro falls in Pakistan and other sites that belongs to the Indian soil now are Ropar in Punjab, Kalibangan in Rajasthan and many other.
The Aryans and the Vedic Age
Aryans inhabited India around 2000-1500 BC as invaders. Slowly they started mingling with the local population and incorporated themselves into the social system. They were the one who started formalized agriculture which they learnt from their predecessors. They are the one who started establishing small agrarian groups and communities across the northern India mainly in Punjab.
It is believed and also evident from the resources that they bought horse on the Indian soil, they also developed the Sanskrit language and also played significant role in establishing religion to an extent. Later these are the three important factors which later shaped up the Indian culture.
As they were the first one to introduce horse so it is pretty obvious that they will be the one to facilitate Cavalry warfare. Sanskrit was kind of binding factor, of the maximum Indian languages. Umpteen number of god and goddesses entered in the Vedic era, which also cultivated myths and legends in the Indian society, theses things are like foundation of the Hindu religion. It is the most common as well as important part of the Indian culture.
The Muslim Invasions
Muslims entered India from Central Asia and gradually they were the one's who started dominating the polity and they were the ones who introduced the Persian culture and Islamic religion to the South Asia. Slowly after Arab caliphate annexed Sind, he started exploring Middle East as with time they started collapsing then many other Central Asian people mostly the Turks entered the area.
Turkish were not completely civilized and the worst thing was that they were recently converted Muslims. They never liked the infidels and also they were very much fearless invaders. For almost two centuries tussle continued in between- Turks and Rajputs until the Mohammad Ghuri who was also a Muslim conquered most part of the north India.
The Coming of the Europeans
In 1498 when Vasco Da Gama who was a Portuguese Voyager came to Calicut on the west coast, it was a beginning of entrance of the Europeans. They found India very profitable, after watching the prosperity and the wealth. So in quest for wealth they started looking for the opportunities. In the urge of spices the Portuguese challenged the supremacy of Arab's in the Indian Ocean, and slowly they started finding a strategic trading posts and that they finally found along the Arabian center and the Persian Gulf. Finally in 1510, Portuguese captured the Goa and further it became the center of their commercial as well as political activities. After that in India they stayed and ruled for almost more then four centuries.
Slowly these English people became use to of the Indian customs and languages, not only this they also understood and spoke Persian language which was official language under the Mughal. They totally lived like an Indian during their interim, they were not even hesitant of intermingling and easily intermarried also. Because of this behavior English were edge above than the Europeans. French also showed their interest, they also founded East India company in 1664, though they were a bit late but established themselves. They founded their base in Pondicherry on the Coromandel Coast
Indian independence movement
Before the independence people were very badly discouraged, it was really a tough job to refill people again with enthusiasm of gaining independence. After the introduction of a English education in India, growth of nationalism increased in every nook of the country. It made people rethink on their identity also many educated people started following Western culture blindly. The best and the strongest reaction of English education was that it made people aware of their rights which ultimately helped them in sweeping off the Western rule.
Indian nationalism is basically built on the Indian past that's the reason it is so strong. The basis of whole Independence event was the vast knowledge and the culture of the greatness of Ancient India.
Britishers were very rude with people, because of so rough behavior discontent among people increased. Due to these extremist act, independence movement was intensified. People who fall under their dominance were always stigmatized, Britishers never thought that protest can rise to this extent that they have to leave the place. Indian people were not able to trust their rulers as they were not at all trustworthy, they treated their natives with violence. People were truly tired of all those atrocities.
On 15 August 1947, India became independent, it got free of cruel Britishers. After that India wanted an Indian Prime Minister and everybody trusted Jawaharlal Nehru. Everyone showed faith on him. After becoming Prime Minister he said, "Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we will redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom.
It was a beautiful moment for all of us. It's a known fact that when nation comes out of the long and almost never ending atrocities then it stands more firmly as well as strongly. That day was the end of ill fortune and a new chapter begins yet again.
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